04 June 2021 Volume :9 Issue :25

Isifundiswa Sase-UKZN Engqophamlandweni Yocwaningo Ngezilimi

Isifundiswa Sase-UKZN Engqophamlandweni Yocwaningo Ngezilimi
USolwazi Jochen Zeller.Click here for English version

USolwazi Jochen Zeller, uSolwazi Kwezezilimu eKolishi lezesiNtu, ungomunye wabesethimbeni locwaningo lwasemhlabeni jikelele, eliholwa ongoti base-University of Birmingham nase- Leibniz-Centre General Linguistics (-eZAS), e-Berlin, elithole ukuthi ukuphimisa izinhlamvu zamagama kungaba neminye imiyalezo kunalokho obekucatshangwa. U-Zeller ungomunye wababhale leliphepha locwaningo ngokuhlanganyela.

Lolucwaningo luveza “obekungaziwa” okwenza ukuthi okhokho bethu baqale ukuxhumana bodwa ngolimi ukuthi kwakungenzeka ukuthi yimisindo nje, kunokuba ngukukhuluma ngezandla sakulingisa, okwenza abantu ukuthi baqambe amagama amasha ukuchaza umhlaba abaphila kuwona.

Kwakukholakala ukuthi ukuze kusunguleke izilimi zabantu, okhokho bethu kwakudingeka ukuthi benze izimpawu ezintsha ezazingaqondwa ngabanye abantu, kuthenjelwe ezimpawini ezibonakalayo isimo sazo esifuze lokho okusuke kuqondiwe.

Abacwaningi bacwaninge ukuthi kwakungenzeka yini ukuthi abantu bezilimi ezehlukene baqonde ukuphinyiswa kwezinhlamvu zamagama asho izinto ezihlukene ezingama-30 ezilimini nokuthi yiziphi ezazingaba nomsebenzi ekuthuthukeni kolimi ekuqaleni.

Lezizincazelo zithinta izinto eziphefumulayo, okukhona kuzona abantu nezilwane (ingane, indoda, umuntu wesifazane, ingulule, inyoka, indluzele), izinto ezingaphefumili (ummese, umlilo, idwala, amanzi, inyama, izithelo), ukwenza (ukuqoqa, ukupheka, ukufihla, ukusika, ukuzingela, ukudla, ukulala), izimpahla (ubuthuntu, ubukhali, ubukhulu, ubuncane, ubuhle, ububi), izincazelo (ubunye, ubuningi) nezabizwana (lokhu, lokhuya).

Lelithimba lishicilele elikutholile kuma-Scientific Reports, labalula ukuthi ukuphimisa imisindo kwabantu abakhuluma isiNgisi kungaqondwa ngabantu bamasiko nezilimi ezihlukene.

Ebantwini akade bekhona bekukhona izilimi ezingama-28 zemindeni yezilimi ezili-12, obekukhona kuzona izilimi zase-Afrika ezimbili (isi-Berber nesiZulu) namaqembu abantu bamasiko angabhalwa phansi njengabantu abakhuluma isi-Palikúr abahlala emahlathini ase-Amazon nabantu abakhuluma isi-Daakie base-South Pacific island of Vanuatu. Abalaleli bazozonke izilimi bashaye emhloleni ngalokho obekuqondiwe ngemisindo ephinyiselwayo.

U-Zeller uthe: ‘Lolucwaningo luneqhaza elimqoka ekuqondeni kwethu ukuthuthuka kolimi. Abantu noma ngabe abaluphi ulimi nesiko bakwazi ukwenza nokuqonda imisindo ephinyiselwayo esho izinto ezehlukene. Lokhu kukhomba ukuthi akupheleli olimini olubhalwayo kodwa nolukhulunywayo lususelwa ezimpawini zakudala. Kuyinto enhle kakhulu ukuthi i-UKZN, ingukuphela kweNyuvesi yase-Afrika ebambe iqhaza, kanti nabantu abakhuluma isiZulu baphose esivivaneni kulolucwaningo.’

Isivivinyo esenziwe ezinkundleni zokuxhumana senze ukuthi abacwaningi bakwazi ukuhlola ukuthi isibalo esikhulu sabantu ababambe iqhaza emhlabeni bakwazile yini ukuqonda okuphinyiswayo. Isivivinyo esisebenzisa izithombe ezilula ezili-12, kwenze ukuthi bakwazi ukuhlola ukuthi ababambe iqhaza abantu abadabuka emiphakathini okungabhalwa kuyona bakwazile yini ukuqonda okuphinyiswayo.

Ithimba labacwaningi lithole ukuthi amanye amagama aqagelwe kangcono kunamanye. Esivivinyweni esisenkundleni yokuxhumana ngobuchwepheshe khona kutholakale ukuthi abantu bashaye emhloleni kusukela kuma-98% ngesenzo soku‘lala’ kuya kuma-34.5% ngesabizwana ‘ulokho’. Abakade bebambe iqhaza bashaye into ecokeme ngezincazelo “ukulala”, “ukudla”, “ingane”, “ingulule” na “manzi” kanti bashaye udaka ngamagama athi “lokho”, “ukuqoqa”, “ubuthuntu”, “ubukhali” no “mmese”.

Abacwaningi babalule ukuthi nakuba abakutholile kuveze ubufakazi bokuthi kungenzeka ukuthi izimpawu zokuphimisa zenze ukuthi kuqondakale amagama aqondiwe kodwa lokho akusho ukuthi izimpawu zakudala nazo zazineqhaza elimqoka entuthukweni yokuxhumana kwabantu.

Amagama: ngu-Melissa Mungroo

Isithombe: Sithunyelwe


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